Sunday, May 13, 2018

August 13,1871: Unnamed

Hello, everyone. A has found that the Sam Hose lynching has several layers that she wants to display in detail. But, since Sam Hose makes our 1000th person lynched and there are more victims coming to light every time we search for information on the ones we are currently covering, it is important to cover those other victims of lynching. I will be posting on several of the lynchings I have found at least once a week. I tried my hardest to find a name for today's victim but was unsuccessful. I also am unsure if he was lynched on the 13th or the 14th. The articles do not mention if he was lynched the day that the girl went missing, the 12th, and the papers conflict on the method of lynching as well. I have said the 13th but could be off a few days. I do not know if he was guilty or not, most of the articles give the exact same information and it is sorely lacking in detail. With that said, I'll point your attention to our first article which is from the Titusville Herald (Titusville, Pennsylvania) and is dated August 21, 1871:

A Negro Lynched—Murder—Rape.

LOUISVILLE, August 19.

The negro who outraged and murdered the little girl near Fulton Station, Herkimer county [sic], a few days since, was taken from jail on the night of his arrest, shot through seven times, and left for dead. The next morning he was found sitting up and was taken to jail and his wounds dressed, but afterwards the citizens took him out and hung him. He had confessed his crime at the examining trial.

Our next paper is from the Hickman Courier (Hickman, Kentucky) dated August 19, 1871:

A Fiendish Act by a Negro.
________
A White Girl Outraged and Killed.
_____


We hear of a most fiendish act which occurred on Saturday last, in that portion of Hickman county, known as the Potato patch. It appears that a young daughter of Esq Thomas Beunet[sic], a well known and much respected citizen of that locality, was outraged and killed by an old negro man in the employ of the family. The young daughter was between 14 and 15 years of age, beautiful in person and dearly beloved not only by her parents and relatives, but by her entire acquaintance. On Saturday, this young daughter went into the orchard, some distance from the house, alone, for the purpose of getting some fruit, whither the negro followed her, and after accomplishing his hellish purpose on her person, strangled her to death, and threw her body into a pond near by. The girl being missed for sometime, search was commenced by her friends and neighbors, the negro who committed the deed joining in the search. Someone remembered to have seen the negro in the orchard about the time she started for the fruit, and suspicion was thus aroused. He acknowledged that he outraged her person and then murdered her, and threw her in the pond. The imprints of his hands were yet upon her face, and other marks of her violation. The officers attempted to take him to jail, but some indignant person present shot him, and it was thought killed him, but it appears the shot was not fatal, as the officers afterwards took him to jail at Clinton. On Saturday night, we hear, the negro died in jail, whether from the shots received or from additional shots, we know not; but, our own judgement is he should have been burnt alive.

Our next article is from The Tennessean (Nashville, Tennessee) published August 18, 1871:

An Atrocious Crime by a Negro Fiend.

LOUISVILLE, August 17—A fiendish murder, accompanied by circumstances of the most horrible atrocity, has come to light in the southern part of the State. Last Saturday a little girl, aged 10 years, daughter of 'Squire Thomas Bennett, living near Fulton Station, the Paducah and Gulf Railroad, at dividing line between Kentucky and Tennessee, was missing from home and anxious search was made for her but in vain. Suspicion at length rested upon a negro who had been working for Mr. Bennett since the war, and he was arrested but escaped, and was shot and recaptured. Becoming frightened he confessed that he had attempted to commit a rape on the child, but finding her too small, first choked her to death and then accomplished his infamous purpose, after which he threw the body in a pond and returned to the house to join in the search for her. At last accounts the incarnate fiend was in custody of the citizens, but is probably lynched by this time.

As you can tell, there is also some doubt as to how the man was lynched as well. Our final article is from The Jackson County Banner (Brownstown, Indiana) published August 31, 1871:

...A negro who outraged and murdered a little girl, near Fulton station, Hickman county, KY., a few days since, was taken from jail on the night of his arrest, shot through seven times, and left for dead. Next morning he was found sitting up, was taken to jail and his wounds dressed, but afterward the citizens took him out and hung him. He had confessed his crime......

Thank you for joining us, and as always, we hope we leave you with something to ponder.

Wednesday, May 9, 2018

April 23, 1899: Sam Hose, continued

The lynching of Sam Hose caught the attention of many people. There were differing opinions across the country and many papers shared those opinions. 

I'm starting The Pittsburgh Press (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) which asked for people's opinions on the lynching. The first article comes from the May 7, 1899 edition:


My Dear Press Leaguers—Our dear editor has many times asked to write and give our opinions on some subject which is at that time occupying or attracting the attention of the general public, and particularly the attention of our bright Press league cousins. Now, dear leaguers, I do not wish to write a long lecturing letter, and stir up a big fight "with pens for swords" among us, but I wish to give my opinion of the lynching of Sam Hose, at Newnan, Ga. I have heard people talk about the horrors of the Inquisition, of the terrors and tortures of the Bastile, and then thank heaven we have no such places or tortures. I have heard people, public speakers and ministers, praise our nineteenth century civilization, but where was our Christianity, where was our civilization, where our justice in the case of Sam Hose? Think of the terrible agony of that unfortunate negro, when, according to newspaper reports, they chained him to a tree, his ears cut from his head, his fingers cut off one by one. Each cut was accompanied by a scream of agony from the wretched prisoner. Think of the terrible agony he suffered when the match was applied and the flames encircled his wretched, bleeding, maimed body body. Think of when he placed his maimed hands against the tree and broke the chain, and how he was kicked back into the flames. Is this civilization? When the mob took Hose if they had hung him to the first tree, instead of torturing him, I would have said they did right. But when it comes to torturing a man, whether he be white or black, as cruelly as Indians ever did the whites, or as the lowest creature on earth, I object. I respect a good, honest, law-abiding colored citizen, but Sam Sam [sic] Hose deserved no such cruel treatment as he received at the hands of the infuriated mob. I do not say that he did not deserve death. Oh, no! But why do it in such a brutal, unchristian manner. This lynching, or murder, as I should call it, has cast a blot of shame on the history of our sister state. But after his death came the most shameful part of it all. Think of the body being cut to pieces, and people fighting for those pieces for souvenirs. One man proudly shows to his acquaintances a piece of heart, which he is keeping as a relic! What a ghastly, grewsome [sic] relic it must be! I say the law should have been allowed to take it socourse [sic]and justice meted out in the proper manner. What should be done to prevent these southern outrages I leave to old and wiser heads than mine, so will say nothing about them, except that they should be stopped. Leaguers, this is a new subject, and not a very pleasant one, but I hope you will all give your views, so that we may learn where the great Press league stands in this question.                                                   Klondike


The next edition with the Press League was published the following Sunday, May 14, 1899:

AROUND THE LEAGUE TABLE.

Siamese Twin—Klondike, in your last letter I saw where you would like to hear the leaguers' opinions in regard to the case of Sam Hose. Well, I think they were a trifle hard on him, although I think he deserved lynching and shot full of holes; but I do not think they should have cut him up in pieces. This is rather a grewsome subject to talk on, and I would sooner talk about the ball game. . .American Star, Ford City—. . . Klondike, my opinion in regard to the lynching of Sam Hose is this:  I do not believe in torturing any negro, but any man who commits a crime like he did should be lynched. Should such a diabolical crime be committed in Pittsburg or Allegheny I, for one, would feel like helping to pull the rope. . .

PRESS LEAGUE MAIL POUCH

Dear Editor and Leaguers—I am quite sure you will all agree with me when I say Klondike Al's opinion of the recent lynching of Sam Hose, at Newman [sic], Ga., was an excellent one and expressed in the most concise and able manner. It was the most outrageous crime ever committed in the history of civilization. It has not only cast a blot of shame on the state of Georgia, but on the United States and the entire civilised world. They would not have been contented to end his  miserable existence as soon as possible. Oh no; they had to torture him in the most cruel and brutal manner before they applied the match to his clothing, after it became saturated with kerosene oil. Just imagine him standing there, chained to a tree, with his ears and fingers cut off and the flames licking his bleeding body. Picture the mob standing about, gloating over their unfortunate and helpless victim. Oh, what terrible agony he must have suffered in those brief moments! His agony was so great that he broke the chains that encircled his body in his death struggles. Words are inadequate to describe such a scene. Do you call that Christianity? Do you call that justice?Do you call that civilization? He undoubtedly deserved death, for he committed an awful crime, but not in that terrible manner. If they had hung him to the nearest tree they would have done an act of humanity. But why should justice not be meted out to the mob who participated in the affair? They deserve punishment, perhaps more so than their victim. Klondike Al, you need have no fear of stirring up a fight, for no right-thinking and law-abiding people could find any justification for such brutalities as were committed at Newman [sic], Ga. Yours in the league.                      Chick. City

Editor and Cousins:—Although I do not feel in the humor for writing, I cannot help answering our Cousin Klondike's letter in regards to the lynching of Sam Hose in Georgia. My dear Klondike, you must not wax so indignant at the so-called outrage. Human (?) [sic] beings like that criminal cannot be called men; they are not even on a par with the yellow cur. Your pictures of the sufferings of that cur is certainly harrowing, but could I, or could anybody, describe the terrible agony of his victim?No, indeed, such sufferings could not be pictured in words. Let us go on a little further and say, what would you do if one of your family should be the victim of such a criminal? Would you lift your eyes to heaven and say, May God forgive him as I do? No, my dear cousin, you would become enraged, your blood would boil with a righteous fury and had you the power you would have inflicted on him the most terrible tortures your mind could invent. But, in the south that feeling extends farther. those who did not know the victim would be filled with the same wrath, and the assailant would be powerless in the hands of these self-appointed judges. Lynch law certainly does make mistakes, but never so often as does the regular law, with its red tape and ofttimes crookedness. Would you speak a word against the torturing of an animal in human form, who, after committing the most horrible atrocities, did on the very eve of his justifiable execution, and with his last breath implicated another of his race, who was entirely innocent and had no knowledge of the crime any more than did the president of the United States? We are taught that when, as we are passing to the Great Beyond, we look for forgiveness for our earthly sins and forgive others as we would hope to be forgiven by the Almighty. Think of that creature Hose, who, when, according to scripture, he would have known that nothing could save him, and that he was doomed to die, adding such a crime to his already horrible list. Could you consider such a creature a man? I have always held that not all men are created equal, and if you could see those southern negroes you would share my belief, and such atrocities as the one of which I speak only tend to uphold my views. Believe me, those crimes are much more numerous in the south than we hear of through the papers. Those we hear of, are only those, the committers of which come to a just end at the hands of an impromptu court.
Jollier.
City.

Dear Friend:—. . . The recent burning of Sam Hose is a rather delicate subject to discuss from any other than a northern point of view. I have a strain of southern blood in my veins and have always looked at the southern lynchings from a southerner's, as well as a northerner's point. Personally, I am warm blooded and it pains me to see anything,no matter how small, needlessly hurt, yet, without wishing to convey the impression that I delight in cruelty, I believe that Sam Hose and many others of his stamp received no more than they deserved. Place yourself in a southern man's position, imagine yourself in the home of the murdered farmer at the time of the crime, imagine yourself married and in constant dread of some similar crime being repeated on you and your family, and then you will be able to understand why the southern people get so wild. Sam Hose committed the crime of a devil (pardon the word) and he deserved a devil's fate. A more fiendish crime it would be hard to imagine. I will not go into details, you are all perfectly familiar with them, but remember that you look at the crimes of lynchers principally from a northerner's point of view. You forget that such crimes are very rare in the north, populated as it is more densely, you forget that every southern man, especially in the thinly populated districts, is in constant fear of some such crime, you forget that the law is too lenient with such fiends as Hose. Remember all this—place yourself in a southerner's position and I believe you will concur with me that Sam Hose got all he deserved. He was not a human, he would disgrace the name of beast. Reason the question out logically and give your honest opinion, writing nothing that you do not fully believe. If you believe that fiends like Hose should be allowed to continue their work unrestricted, say so, give your honest opinion, nothing more. Trusting that you are all in good health and wishing the league renewed prosperity, I am
Yours in the league,
Ruth Spring Garden.




The conversation about the lynching continued in the next edition with the Press League, May 21, 1899:

CHAT WITH CONTRIBUTORS.

Dough Nuts—. . . Klondike, I think Sam Hose deserved all he got and more, too, for such a crime as he did. If they had let the law take its course he might have been hung and he might not,for the jury might have said he was insane and let him go. . .


OUR PRESS LEAGUE MAIL POUCH.

.Dear Leaguers—. . . Leaguers, the discussion of the lynching of Sam Hose is rather a deep one for us. Yet we may all express our opinion, and mine, I fear, will hardly be read, after so many are on the field before me. Yet I can not agree with Ruth Spring Garden or others who favor this wholesale butchery. Sam Hose was deserving of death, but not the tortures that he had to undergo to expiate his crime. We are told by Him who will one day judge all men, that vengeance is His and He will repay. Again we are told to "judge not, lest you be judged." But I think when that day dawns, when we must account for our lives, I would rather be in Sam Hose's place than in the place of those who by the strength of their arms gave back to God the life he gave in such a horrible manner. . .Vale           Allegheny

Dear Editor and Cousins—Our page was very interesting last Sunday. I was glad to see Ruth Spring Garden's name at the end of a letter again. I was afraid he had left us. . . In regard to the Sam Hose debate, I say, put yourself in the injured one's place. Look at the ones you love dearly and think what could you do with the person who would harm them as he did. . .Lauretta                City

My Dear Cousins—I see by the league page before me that several of our best writers have accepted my invitation and in a concise way express their opinion on the subject of lynching. I am glad to read all their letters, whether they agreed with me or not, and now Jollier, a word with you. I was very much pleased to make your acquaintance at the last P. L. S. C. meeting, also you, Ruth Spring Garden, for although we disagree in many things, we can be friends for all that. And say, Ruth, I don't believe my knees trembled one bit when I met you. Now Jollier, when you ask what would I do if it were one of my relatives whom Sam Hose had killed, you ask a question which is easily answered.

I would have shot him down. I would not stop to get a crowd and treat him like a dog. I would shoot him down in his tracks and if they had done so to Sam Hose I would have said they did just right. You say if I "could see those southern negroes." Why, you didn't know I was born in the south; that my own father, who is dead and gone, was a confederate soldier and a slaveholder. This may surprise you, but it is true, and I believe I have as much of that prided southern blood as any one, and yes, I know that for every five lynchings in the south one reaches the newspapers. Now Jollier, you are approaching dangerous ground when you say that you believe all men were not created equal, and that is another subject to debate, I will say nothing about it in my letter. no I do not believe such fiends as Hose should go unrestricted, but if the southern people want to lynch, let them do it in a little civilised manner. Yes, American Star, if they had hung him without any of the terrible tortures they used I would have been glad to have pulled on the rope. . . Klondike.

Dear Aunt Patience and Cousins—I write this especially to answer Ruth Spring Garden's letter about Sam Hose. I do not agree with him at all. He say "the southern people would live in dread of being murdered." There would have been no possibility of that at all, if Sam Hose had been hanged like civilized people would have hanged him, because he then would have been dead. Now if it had been I, you or Ruth Spring Garden or any other white person who had committed that crime, they wouldn't have cut him in pieces like that. Do you think so? I don't They would have given him a fair trial and perhaps then his friends would have tried to make him out to be insane. I think the southerners are quite as bad or worse, in fact, than the Spaniards with their bull fights.They like to lynch a negro on the least provocation and experience, or seem to, a savage joy in cutting him to pieces. I truly believe they want to get revenge on the negro for being free. The Duke of Ulverford     
Rochester, Pa.


Also found in the May 7 edition  was a small bit in a section titled "AFRO-AMERICAN NOTES":

AFRO-AMERICAN NOTES

News and Comment of Special Interest to Colored Readers.

The outspoken opposition of Rev. A. D. Carlile to the passage of a resolution offered before the Pittsburg presbytery last Monday denouncing southern lynchings has been a very fruitful topic of comment among all classes of citizens during the week. What the reverend gentleman is credited with having said at the meeting, and what he has since given publicity to in the interviews and published statements, makes plain the fact that he is in no sense of the word friendly to the colored race in this country, unless they are of the "uncle" and "aunty" variety of before the war. Sam Hose, the negro who was lynched at Palmetto, was, by his own confession, guilty of murder. The assault charge is generally discredited even in Georgia. For the crime of murder, whether in Georgia or in any other state, Hose would have been found guilty by the usual process of the law, and would have expiated his crime on the gallows. One week before his victim, Cranfeld [sic], was killed, it is charged, and no attempt at denial has been made, that Cranfeld [sic] was one of a party of white men which shot to death six colored men cooped up in a warehouse near Palmetto, Ga. It is also conceded that Strickland, the poor old colored preacher, was innocent of any wrong-doing. But his life paid the forfeit to the barbarous frenzy of the mob, and a Christian minister, apprised of all the facts in the case, so far forgets his mission among men as to defend, with great warmth of language, the deeds of the mob. One of the "new negroes" whom he decries is the moderator of the presbytery to which he belongs. Probably this fact had something to do with the indignant vehemence of Rev. Carlile's opposition to the resolutions..

Nowhere in the south does the law move on leaden feet when the accused is a negro, whether he is charged with stealing a loaf of bread or held for a more serious offense. Nor is the benefit of a doubt ever accorded him. The presumption is "guilty as charged" from the start. Nor is there for him any minimum—the extreme penalty of the law. Knowing this, as every southern white man must  of necessity know it, there remains no peg on which to hang justification for lynch law. The sporadic outbreaks of it in the north are but the results of that which is too common at the south. So far the barbarous phrases of it are indigenous to the south, which, unless a halt is soon called, will one day do full penance for the woes it was brought down on its own head. "As ye sow,so shall ye reap.". . .

At a meeting of the Francis Ellen Harper league of Pittsburg and Allegheny, held the past week, Mrs. Rebecca Aldridge presented the following resolutions, which were unanimously adopted:

Whereas, A wife has been made a widow and five children are fatherless by the lynching of Sam Hose and Rev. Strickland, of Newman [sic], Ga., Sunday, April 23; and, whereas, Rev. Dr. Broughton, of the Tabernacle Baptist church, Atlanta, Ga., spoke out without fear or favor at the inhuman outrage. Therefore be it

Resolved, That we, the members of this league denounce the awful and barbarous acts of the mob as exceeding even savages in its cruelty, and we regard it as one of the most diabolical crimes against law and order, peace and prosperity, ever perpetrated in a civilized country, on a human being. Be it further resolved that we extend to Rev. Dr. Broughton a vote of thanks for his manly stand for justice, the law, and the right. . .

The colored citizens of Finleyville held a large and enthusiastic meeting Thursday night to protest against the inhuman lynchings in Georgia.They appointed a committee to draft resolutions suitable to the occasion and they decided to organize a league to petition congress to urge such action as will prevent a repetition of such lawlessness. . .


One of the issues after a lynching were, believe it or not, people claiming to be relatives of the lynched person. An article about such a man was printed in the May 6, 1899 edition of The Times (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania):

NOT A SON OF MOB'S VICTIM

Man Masquerading as John Hose an Impostor.

HE HAS PROBABLY FLED

Church Members Found Out He Was a Fraud and Would Not Let Him Speak.
He Fooled Many.

The man who came to this city yesterday claiming to be the son of Samuel Hose, who was burned to death by a mob at Newman [sic], Ga., a week ago, was discovered last night to be an impostor. John Hose is the name he gave, and he was promptly housed upon his arrival by a member of the congregation of Cherry Street Baptist Church.

It was arranged that he was to speak at the church last evening, but when he was closely questioned as to how he had reached this city, he told so many conflicting stories that suspicion was aroused in the minds of the church officials. He frequently contradicted himself and many of the tales he told his hearers knew to be untrue.

Has Taken to His Heels.

According to his story his escape from Georgia was but little short of the miraculous. Upon reaching Washington, D. C., he said he went to work at his trade of tailoring and earned enough money to get to this city, where he had heard a famous school teacher lived. It was to the school teacher's family that he applied for help, and as he succeeded in taking them in they took him in.

When asked about his mother he said she was in Albany. He wanted to interest friends in her case, he said, and desired enough money to pay his fare to that place so that he might visit her. He evidently became suspicious last night, for he left the house of his would-be benefactors and at a late hour had not returned.


The next day's edition continued about the impostor:

"HOSE" HAS NOT RETURNED

The Fake Son of the Mob's Victim Keeps Out of the Way.

Told a Straight Story, But His Appearance Did Not Bear it Out—Suspicion Soon Aroused.

Further investigation shows that but two persons in this city saw anything of the lad who said he was John Hose, the young colored man who posed as the son of Sam Hose, the negro who was burned at Newnan, Georgia, last week, and came to this city last Thursday from Washington en route for Albany, N. Y. He came to Philadelphia Thursday afternoon and wended his way to a residence on Bainbridge street, above Sixteenth street, the home of a family whose acquaintance he claimed to have formed at Beaufort, South Carolina, some years ago.

He is described as being apparently 20 years of age, height little less than 5 feet, rather dark complexioned, with large flat nose, and altogether a typical Southern negro, with an expression of intelligence. But he gave no evidence whatever of being a man in hard luck or a refugee. He was faultless in his attire. He wore a black suit, black derby hat, white shirt, collar and cuffs.

Told a Good Story.

When he called the husband, whom young Hose claimed as his former teacher in the South, was not at home. He was told by the wife to call at 6 o'clock that evening. Young Hose, however, made known his errand to the wife and her mother.

Said he:  "I have just arrived in the city, and am the son of Sam Hose, the man who was murdered and burned about ten days ago. I arrived in Washington, D. C., Wednesday. I am a tailor by trade, and was, as has already been stated through the papers, assisted through to Philadelphia by the police authorities of Washington, to whom I made known my wish to come to the north in search of my mother, whom I understand has been living in Albany, N. Y., where she managed to arrive in safety after the burning of my father. During my stay in Washington I earned a little money by making pantaloons. I received part of my education in the South, and the attended Lincoln University."

Suspected Him at Once.

Strange to say, said the wife, he could rehearse the names of all the professors of the institution for several years past. He said he attended the Colored Methodist Church at his home.

The husband claimed no knowledge of a family in Beaufort, South Carolina, by the name of Hose. He taught school for a number of years where this young imposter claims to have gone to school. "My impression," said she, "after the interview with hose was that he was an imposter, and I went so far as to intimate the same to him, which may have accounted for his not returning to the house yesterday, as he promised to do.Since Friday morning he has not been seen or heard of."

I am going to end this post here. I have 28 more articles to read through and choose which to post. With so many articles about the lynching, I will be doing a third post for Sam Hose.

As always, I hope we leave you with something to ponder.



Saturday, April 28, 2018

April 23, 1899: Sam Hose

I have taken a long break, but I am trying to get back into the swing of things. I have been focusing on myself in the interim. I am agoraphobic with a general anxiety disorder added on. I have been working on fighting the panic and doing more outside of my home. My plan is to start with weekly posts and eventually be back to daily. 

I have had multiple people ask about my sources. At the top of every article I list the newspaper the article came from. That newspaper is the source. If I post something from a book, I add the author and title. I do not claim to be an expert on lynchings. I do not even have a college degree. I do, however, have a curiosity of the past and an indignant rage about the murders of so many people. I grew up in the south and still live in the south, but I was never taught the depth of lynchings. I feel the very important history of people of color in America is not taught. I only wish to inform and to leave judgments to the reader. I try to cover lynchings from all over the country and lynchings of all races. I try to cover victims that were obviously guilty as well as ones who were most definitely innocent.

I come back today with the lynching of Sam Hose. If you are squeamish, I warn you that this lynching is grotesque. Sam Hose was mutilated before being burned alive. Please keep that in mind before reading the articles.

First we have a proclamation from the Governor of Georgia found in  The Atlanta Constitution (Atlanta, Ga) dated April 15, 1899:

A PROCLAMATION.—GEORGIA: By Allen D. Candler, governor of said state. whereas, official information has been received at this department that assault and murder was committed in the county of Campbell, on the 12th day of April, 1899, upon the body of Alfred Cranford, by Sam Hose, colored, as is alleged, and that said Sam Hose has fled from justice. I have thought proper, therefore, to issue this my proclamation, hereby offering a reward of $250 for the apprehension and delivery of said Sam Hose to the sheriff of Coweta county at Newnan, or to the sheriff of Fulton county, in the city of Atlanta. And I do moreover charge and require all officers in this state, civil and military, to be vigilant in endeavoring to apprehend the said Sam Hose in order that he may be brought to trial for the offense with which he stands charged.

Given under my hand and the seal of the state, at the capitol in Atlanta, this the 14th day of April, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninety-nine, and of the independence of the United States of America the one hundred and twenty-third.

A. D. CANDLER,
Governor

By the Governor.

PHILIP COOK, Secretary of State.
Description—Sam Hose is of a yellow color, five and one-half feet high, one or two front teeth out and carries his head a little to one side. Is 21 or 22 years old. When last seen was wearing a brown-spotted hat.

Next we have an article from The Atlanta Constitution (Atlanta, Georgia) dated April 19, 1899. I have chosen this article because it is a call to the community to continue searching for Sam Hose:

Catch the Criminal!

The only effective way to enforce the law is to deliver criminals up to justice!

An atrocious crime has been committed in Campbell county—a respectable farmer has been murdered; his children were dipped in his blood, and his wife was submitted to an outrage, the nature of which exhausts the power of law to properly punish!

The criminal is at large. It is through the commission of such crimes of which he is guilty that people are goaded into inflicting summary vengeance. If his people do not make themselves prominent in effecting his capture, then they must be content to share the obloquy which his crime brings upon them. This is plain language, but it is true, and they might as well understand it first as last.

The governor of the state has offered a reward of $500 for the arrest and delivery to the officers of Sam Hose.

The people of Palmetto have added to this $250 more.

With a combined reward of  $750 outstanding, the criminal is still at large! For six days Crime has defied Law, and it becomes the duty of those who appeal to Law to work together for its enforcement.

The Constitution hereby offers an additional reward of $500 for the arrest and delivery of Sam Hose to the sheriff of the county in which the crime was committed. 

This makes $1,250 in all.

Read this description and pass it around
Sam Hose weighs 140 pounds, is five feet eight inches tall and a mulatto of a coppery tint. He has a small black mustache and holds his head to one side while talking. He wears his hat well down over his forehead and has an affection which causes him to jerk his head at intervals. When last seen he had on a pair of almost new shoes, No. 7, a pair of gray jeans pants, brown sack coat and a mottled hat.

The Constitution makes this offer, fully convinced of the fact that we have reached a critical period—one in which the safety of the home must be measured against the chances for criminals to escape. The people of Georgia are orderly and conservative, the descendants of ancestors who have been trained in American methods for 150 years. They are a people intensely religious, home-loving and just. There is among them no foreign or lawless element. When, therefore, a lynching occurs among such people, it has connected with it premeditation and purpose, and it follows that when such a people can be so moved behind it there is a motive so strong and overpowering that all the bonds of conservatism have been broken.

Georgia is an agricultural state. Her people are forced to the isolated life of the farm, and as the farmer goes about his daily labor, he must leave mother, wife or daughter in the lonely cabin to await his home-coming. Are they safe? The answer comes from the humble home in Campbell county, where an industrious citizen who bore his part toward family and state was brutally murdered by the negro to whom he had given food and employment.

The searching for Sam Hose should be kept up, and his punishment should be made summary enough to serve notice upon those who sympathize with him that there is protection in Georgia for women and children.

Twelve hundred and fifty dollars reward for the capture of Sam Hose and his delivery to the sheriff of Campbell county!

Of this sum The Constitution will pay $500.

Keep up the chase!


This article covers the search and comes from The Atlanta Constitution (Atlanta, Georgia) dated April 16, 1899:


HOSE IS A WILL O' THE WISP 
TO HIS DETERMINED PURSUERS

Negro Has Cleverly Evaded All Efforts of the Searchers To
Effect His Capture,

GRIM MEN ARE FOLLOWING HIM

LateReports (sic) Announce That His Capture
Is Expected.

NEGROES DRIVEN FROM PALMETTO

Excitement Still Continues Intense, 
and It Is Openly Declared That
if Sam Hose Is Brought in
Alive He Will Be
Burned.

By Daniel Carey. 

Palmetto, Ga. April 15.—(Special.)—Like a will o' the wisp Sam Hose has today evaded all efforts to effect his capture. He has concealed himself in swamps, he has dodged his pursuers when they thought his capture only a matter of a few hours, and has slipped almost from beneath their touch, which will not be gentle.

He has proven himself almost as shrewd as those who are hunting for him, but not quite. At a late hour tonight word was received here that the posse is hot on the trail near LaGrange, and it is now thought, even by those who were disposed to believe the negro had escaped, that he will be brought to Palmetto this afternoon or that his bullet-riddled body will be left swinging to a limb by those who are now running him down to his doom.

With unabated zeal and with tireless energy the search for Hose has continued today. This negro, the murderer of Alfred Cranford and the assailant of his wife, is being tracked swiftly and with accuracy by cool, determined men, who have so far done what they said they would do when they left their homes to begin the search, and what the women advised them to do--remain away until every trace of the negro had vanished.

Undaunted by failure, they have followed every trail, they have left clews after following them for hours to find them worthless for fresher traces of the negro, and every failure has but served to spur them to renewed effort. Since early last Thursday morning, ten hours after the crimes had been committed, this search has continued. Although almost exhausted in body from sleeplessness and fatigue, the parties are still pushing on, not with the same vigor with which they set out, but with, if possible, greater determination to capture the fleeing negro.

Excitement Continues.

At this place the intense excitement continues. Never before in the history of the town has its people been so wrought up. The residents have shown no disposition to abandon the search in the immediate neighborhood of Palmetto; their ardor has in no degree cooled, and if Sam Hose is brought here by his captors he will be publicly burned at the stake as an example to members of his race who are said to have been causing residents of this vicinity trouble for some time.

There is, however, little probability of the capture of the negro while he is alive. He is known to be a desperate character, or had such a reputation among the people of this place and of Coweta county, even before the crimes of Wednesday night. It is also known that he is armed with a pistol, as he exchanged shots with his pursuers Thursday night near Strickler's bridge, while a negro, John Smith, is said to have admitted giving him a pistol on the night of the murder, although the latter negro says he did not know of the crimes of Hose.

The facts being true, it is very probable that Hose will make a fight for his life, as he has probably already been warned by negroes that it is the intention of his captors to burn him at the stake. It may be that the negro, who uses a pistol well, will wound at least one of his pursuers before he goes down before their shots, and there is great anxiety in Palmetto among the relatives of the searchers.

The searching party is divided into several bodies, but possibly the greatest interest is centered in the man who is following some negro, believed to be Hose, down the Southern railroad toward Savannah. This man is a resident of Palmetto, and is one of the tireless and courageous citizens of this place. He telephoned from Barnesville Friday night that he believed the negro had gone to Macon on a freight train, and announced his intention of following.

Yesterday morning word was received from him from Macon, stating that he had traced his man to several places in Macon, both by his attempt at passing confederate money, which he obtained from the Cranford home on the night of the murder, and by description. Shortly afterwards a message was received from the same man saying the negro he was following had left Macon for Savannah. The Palmetto resident said he would continue the search, and left Macon this morning of an early train.

Ten Minutes To Leave.

Palmetto residents are determined to rid their neighborhood of what they believe to be undesirable persons, and with this object in view they yesterday morning gave John Floyd, a young negro, ten minutes in which to leave town. The negro was approached openly at his home during the morning and was told that he had ten minutes in which to say goodby to his family.

For several minutes he loitered around, and was then told that when the ten minutes allowed him for preparation for departure expired he would be shot through the heart. There was the ring of earnestness in the words he heard, and he no longer hesitated. He wore his hat at the time, but did not stop to reach for his coat, and as he left at a brisk walk, exclaimed: "Fo' Gawd sake. Yo' ain't neber gwine terse me 'round dis here place no more." When Floyd was safely out of gun range he began running, and when last seen was going in the direction of Atlanta.

More Negroes Leave  

Yesterday four negroes left Palmetto with their families, having been notified to depart by notices tacked in public places through out the city. They are Ben Bridges, Tom Jackson, Noah Zellers and Professor Kelly. Two other negroes, George Tatum and John Jamison, both of who were in the warehouse when the negroes were killed several weeks ago, but who escaped injury, were also notified to leave; but they are in the county jail at Fairburn, and when told of the warning, said they would not mind obeying.

Professor Kelly, a negro school teacher, left early Wednesday morning. He had opened his school near Palmetto, when someone informed him that he had been publicly warned to leave. Kelly took his hat and coat and left for parts unknown at once, not even waiting to dismiss from school the children he was teaching.

George Woodward and Henry Briggs, two negroes, voluntarily left with their families yesterday morning, going to Atlanta. It is estimated by citizens that since January 24th, when the first store was fired by the incendiaries, about 200 negroes have left the vicinity. Those who remain are badly frightened, and at S--montown, directly across the railroad from Palmetto, three and four negro families are sleeping, like sheep, in one house for protection.

Searchers Are Persistent.

With unusual persistence, the searchers at Hogansville are today following the trail of their man. This is the same party which, Friday night, chased a negro supposed to be Sam Hose and answering to his description through Moreland and the surrounding country, and the posse is still after the same man. As the day passed they were drawing closer to him, and every time he was heard from, the distance between pursuers and pursued was less.

Late this afternoon the party wired to Palmetto that unless the negro made some move not then anticipated by the searchers he would be captured tonight, and many residents of this place surround both the telegraph and telephone offices as this is being written with the expectation of hearing of the capture. If this party is after Hose and succeeds in taking him alive. Palmetto will be deserted tonight, as the residents will go to meet the captors with their prize.

It was this party which is said to have taken drastic measures this morning to extract knowledge from a negro; but if the man knew anything, according to report, he did not tell it. He was found near Mountville, just after the party left that place, it is said, and was thought to know the direction in which the negro supposed to be Hose had gone. The strange negro represented that he knew nothing.

A rope is said to have been placed around his neck, and he was led to a nearby tree, where he was informed that unless he told in which direction the fugitive had gone, within two minutes opportunity for telling would be gone. With his knees trembling and with his entire body quaking with fear, the negro swore that he knew nothing. The party then allowed him to go, being satisfied that had he known he would have told.

A Frightened Merchant.

It was the same party which badly frightened a merchant at St. Marks, between Mountville and Hogansville today. With three days growth of beard on their faces and their clothes soiled from constant pursuit, the party trooped into the store of the merchant and the leader informed him that the members of the party would like to speak with him privately for a few moments.

The merchant stood still for a moment, his jaw dropping and then like a flash he darted through a rear door, leaving the party in possession of his store., He was seen running toward the woods as fast as his legs could carry him, and could not be induced to stop by friendly shouts. A resident of the neighborhood finally undertook to tell him who composed the party in his store, and the merchant returned to his place of business. He said he thought he had been attacked by brigands. He told what he knew of the direction taken by the negro and the searchers pushed on.

Searching the Neighborhood.

Sam Hose is believed by many to still be in the vicinity of the place where his crimes of Wednesday night were committed. Tonight a party assembled near the Cranford home to go on a quiet search for the negro throughout the entire neighborhood, and if he is there he will probably be captured before morning unless some of his friends learn of the intended hunt and warn him.

There are only a few in this party, not more than ten, and it is the intention to visit all the old haunts of the negro and to steal quietly through the woods with the hope of catching him in an unguarded moment.

An idea of public sentiment not only here, but in Coweta, Pike, Meriwether and Paulding, all of which counties have been visited by the searching parties, maybe be had from the aid given the various posses. Not only have women cheered them on while the men waved their hats and gave vent to other demonstrations of sympathy as the party passed, but practical aid has been rendered the searchers.

Horses and mules have been taken from between the plowshares to be ridden by the members of the posse and buggies have been given them. When the searchers left Palmetto and other places in this vicinity they were on foot; now they are mounted or on buggies. The horses and conveyances are driven about ten or fifteen miles and then sent back to their owners and fresh teams are secured.

If determination, energy and persistence count for anything, Sam Hose will pay the penalty for the crime and it is only feared here that his captors will kill him on sight instead of bringing him here for the death in contemplation for him at this place.

HOT ON THE TRAIL OF HOSE.

FLEEING NEGRO MAY BE CAPTURED NEAR LA GRANGE.

Posse Has Been Swelled in Numbers and Is Only a Few Hours Behind the Fugitive.

LaGrange, Ga., April 15.—(Special.)—In response to a telegram asking for help, a posse left LaGrange this afternoon at 5 o'clock to give chase to the negro Sam Hose, who so brutally murdered Mr. Cranford and then assaulted his wife near Palmetto.

Reports from Mountville tonight at 10:30 o'clock are to the effect that the posse, which has been increased by the crowd from LaGrange, is in hot pursuit of the negro, being only two or three hours behind him. It is thought he will be captured some time in the morning.

The negro has left the Hogansville and Mountville road and is headed toward Greenville. The surrounding country is aroused as it has never been before, and men who are fresh are taking the places of those who are worn out.

HOSE ALMOST IN THEIR GRASP.

FALSE REPORT SAVED THE NEGRO LAST FRIDAY NIGHT.

But for Being Called of Trail, Griffin Citizens Believe They Would Have Caught Murderer.

Griffin, Ga., April 15.—(Special.)—Had not some one sent a dispatch yesterday to the posse which for the past several days has been pursuing Sam Hose, the negro would have already paid the penalty for his horrible crime.

When the dispatch was received by the posse stating that Hose had been arrested and carried to Palmetto, they had the murderer and assailant located, and would doubtless have captured him before the sun rose this morning. After receiving the dispatch the men supposed they were on the wrong track and dispersed, leaving Hose to go on his way unpursued.

The persons sending the dispatch which called of his pursuers evidently had what they considered authentic information of the arrest of Hose, but it proved to be a serious mistake.

Abe Rogowskie, of this city, was one of the posse, and to a Call reporter today he related how the negro was tracked from place to place. Hose was first heard of at Digby, and from there he went to Drewryville, where he tried to pass a $5 confederate bill.

He was followed to Hollonville, and there he again attempted to pass the confederate money for some tobacco at Mr. Marshall's store.

The posse was not very far behind the negro and pushed on  with all possible haste until they reached J. P Crawford's plantation, about a mile and a half this side of Concord.

They learned from Mr. Crawford that a negro filling the description of Hose had applied to him that morning about 10 o'clock, asking for employment, claiming he was from Jasper county. He was hired, and left saying he would return this morning and go to work.

In a negro house on this plantation were found the blood-stained clothes which Hose had left to be washed, with the understanding that he would call for them last night.

The pursuers were then satisfied they were on the right track and would capture the negro before midnight.

Shortly afterwards a dispatch was received stating that Hose had been captured and carried to Palmetto, where he would be dealt with at once.

The men were non-plused at this information and wired for fuller particulars, stating that they were sure they had the right man located.

The message came to them again that Sam Hose was beyond all doubt under arrest in Palmetto, and it was then that the neighbors of Mr. and Mrs. Cranford gave up the chase and hastened back to Palmetto hoping to get there in time to witness the death.

Mr. Rogowskie says a few members of the party remained in the neighborhood several hours longer, and then went to Concord for the night. He was indignant when he learned the negro had not been arrested, and was confident his party would have caught Hose but for the unfortunate dispatch.

Citizens living in Concord still believe the negro is in that neighborhood, and at 10 o'clock this morning wired to Griffin for a posse to come down and help them to capture him.

The posse was formed, and left about noon, but nothing has been heard from it, and it is feared the negro has escaped.


Lastly, we have an article covering the lynching found in April 25, 1899 edition of The Wilmington Morning Star (Wilmington, NC):


GEORGIA CITIZENS LYNCH NEGROES.

Terrible Punishment of Sam Hose, the Murderer and Rape Fiend.

TORTURED AND BURNED ALIVE

Confessed the Murder of Farmer Cranford
Declared a Negro Preacher 
Hired Him to Commit the Murder
The Preacher Subsequently
Captured and
Put to Death By
the Mob.

NEWNAN, GA., April 23.—In the presence of nearly 2,000 people who sent aloft yells of defiance and shouts of joy, Sam Hose, a negro who committed two of the basest acts known to crime, was burned at the stake in a public road one and one-half miles from here this afternoon. Before the torch was applied to the pyre, the negro was deprived of his ears, fingers and other portions of his anatomy. The negro pleaded pitifully for his life while the mutilation was going on, but stood for the ordeal of fire with surprising fortitude. Before the body was cool it was cut to pieces, the bones were crushed into small bits and even the tree upon which the wretch met his fate was torn up and disposed of as souvenirs. The negro's heart was cut into several pieces, as was also his liver. Those unable to obtain these ghastly relics direct, paid their more fortunate possessors extravagant sums for them. Small pieces of bone went for 25 cents, and a bit of the liver, crisply cooked, sold for 10 cents. One of the men who lifted the can of kerosene to the man's head is said to be a native of the commonwealth of Pennsylvania. His name is known to those who were with him,but they refuse to divulge it. The mob was composed of citizens of the Newnan, Griffin, Palmetto and other little towns in the country round about Newnan, and of all the farmers who had received word that the burning was to take place.

Hon. W. Y. Atkinson, former governor of Georgia, met the mob as he was returning from church and appealed to them to let the law take its course. In addressing the mob he used these words:  "Some of you are known to me and when this affair is finally settles in the courts, you may depend upon it that I will testify against you." A member of the mob was seen to draw a revolver and level it at Governor Atkinson, but his arm was seized and the pistol taken from him. The mob was frantic at delays and would hear to nothing but burning at the stake.

Hose confessed to killing Cranford, but denied that he had outraged Mrs. Cranford. Before being put to death the negro stated that he had been paid $12 by "Lige" Strickland, a negro preacher at Palmetto, to kill Cranford. To-night a mob of citizens is scouring the country for Strickland,  who has left his home and will be lynched if caught.

Sam Hose killed Alfred Cranford, a white farmer near Palmetto and outraged his wife ten days ago. Since that time business in that part of the State has been suspended, the entire population turning out in an effort to capture Hose.

Governor Candler has been asked to send troops here to preserve order for a day or two, as it is feared the negroes may wreak vengeance, as many threats to that effect have been made.

The Detailed Story.

Hose has been on the farm of the Jones brothers, between Macon and Columbus, since the day after he committed his horrible crime. His mother is employed on the farm, and to her little cabin he fled as a safe refuge. She fed him and cared for him, but it is not believed that she knew he was being hunted by the authorities. The Jones brothers were not aware of the crime until a few days ago, and were not sure that he was the much wanted man. Saturday morning one of the Jones boys met Hose and he was talking to him when he noticed that his "ginger" face was ebony black, and just below the collar of his shirt the copper color was discernible. Convinced that the negro had blackened his face to escape detection, Jones became convinced that he was the negro for whom the authorities, assisted by bloodhounds, had been scouring the country for ten days, and then determined to arrest him. Sunday morning they brought the negro into Macon and put him aboard the Central of Georgia train with the intention of bringing him to Atlanta. At Griffin some one recognized Hose and sent word on to Newman [sic], the next station, that the negro was on the train bound for Atlanta. When Newnan was reached a great crowd surrounded the train and pushed into the cars. The Jones brothers were told that the negro could be delivered to the sheriff of Campbell county, and that it was not necessary to take him to Atlanta. This was acceded to, and the negro was taken off the train and marched at the head of a yelling, shouting crowd of 500 people to the jail. Here they turned him over to Sheriff Brown, taking a receipt for the prisoner, thus making themselves sure of the $1,250 reward for the "arrest and delivery to the sheriff of Campbell county, of one San Hose." Word was sent to Mrs. Cranford at Palmetto that it was believed Hose was under arrest and her presence was necessary in Newnan to make sure of the identification. In some way the news of the arrest leaked out, and as the town has been on the alert for nearly two weeks the intelligence spread rapidly. From every house in the little city came its occupants, and a good size crowd was soon gathered about the jail. Sheriff Brown was importuned to give up the prisoner, and finally, in order to avoid an assault on the jail and possible bloodshed, he turned the wretch over to the waiting crowd. A procession was quickly formed and the doomed negro was marched at his head through several streets of the town. Soon the public square was reached.

An Appeal Made.

Here they formed and ex-Governor Atkinson, of Georgia, who lives in Newnan, came hurriedly upon the scene and, standing up in a buggy, importuned the crowd to let the law take its course. Governor Atkinson said:

"My fellow citizens and friends:  I beseech you to let this affair go no further. You are hurrying this negro on to death without an identification. Mrs. Cranford, whom he said to have assaulted and whose husband he is said to have killed, is sick in bed and unable to be hereto say whether this is her assailant. Let this negro be returned to the jail. The law will take its course and I promise you it will so quickly and effectively. Do not stain the honor of the State with a crime such as you are about to perform.

Judge A. D. Freeman, also of Newnan, spoke in a similar strain and implored the mob to return the prisoner to the custody of the sheriff and go home. The assemblage heard the words of the two speakers in silence, but the instant their voices had died away, shouts of "On to Palmetto," "Burn him," and "Think of his crime"arose, and the march was resumed.

Identified.

Mrs. Cranford's mother and sister are residents of Newnan. The mob was headed in the direction of their house and in a short time reached the McElroy home. The negro was marched in the gate and Mrs. McElroy called to the front door. She identified the African, and her verdict was agreed to by her daughter, who had often seen Hose around the Cranford place. "To the stake" was again the cry, and several men wanted to burn him in Mrs. McElroy's yard. To this she objected strenuously, and the mob, complying with her wish, started for Palmetto.

Just as they were leaving Newnan word was brought that the 1 o'clock train from Atlanta was bringing 1,000 people to Palmetto. This was thought to be a regiment of militia, and the mob decided to burn the prisoner at the first favorable place rather than be compelled to shoot him when the militia put into sight.

Leaving the little town whose Sunday had been so rudely disturbed, the mob, which now numbered nearly 1,500 people,started on the road to Palmetto in a line of buggies and vehicles on all kinds, their drivers fighting for position in line, following the procession at the head of which, closely guarded, marched the negro.

Confessed the Crime.

One and a half miles out of Newnan a place believed to be favorable for the burning was reached. A little to the side of the road stood a strong pine tree. Up to this the negro was marched, his back placed to the tree and his face to the crowd, which jostled closely about him. Here was the first time he was allowed to talk. He said:  "I am Sam Hose. I killed Alfred Cranford, but I was paid to do it. Lige Strickland, the negro preacher at Palmetto, gave me $12 to kill him."


At this a roar went up from the crowd as the intelligence imparted by the wretch was spread among them. "Let him go on; tell all you know about it," came from the crowd. The negro, shivering like a leaf, continued his recital. "I did not outrage Mrs. Cranford. Somebody else did that. I can identify them. Give me time for that."

The Horror Begins.

The mob could hear no more. The clothes were torn from the wretch in an instant. A heavy chain was produced and wound around the body of the terrified wretch, clasped by a new lock, which dangled at Hose's neck. He said not a word to this proceeding, but at the sight of three or four knives flashing in the hands of several members of the crowd about him, which seemed to forecast the terrible ordeal he was about to be put to, he sent up a yell which could be heard for a mile.

Ante-Mortem Mutilation.

Instantly a hand grasping a knife shot out, and one of the negro's ears dropped into a hand ready to receive it. Hose pleaded pitifully for mercy, and begged his tormentors to let him die. His cries were unheeded. The second ear went the way of the other. Hardly had he been deprived of his organs of hearing before his fingers, one by one, were taken from his hand and passed among the members of the yelling and now thoroughly maddened crowd. The shrieking wretch was quickly deprived of other portions of his anatomy, and the words,

"Come on With the Oil"

brought a huge can of kerosene to the foot of the tree. The negro, his body covered with blood from head to foot, was striving and tugging at his chains. The can was lifted over the negro's head by three or four men and its contents poured over him. By this time a good supply of brush, pieces of fence rails and firewood had been placed about the negro's feet. This pyre was thoroughly saturated and a match applied.

The Burning

A flame shot upward and spread quickly over the pile of wood. As it licked the negro's legs he shrieked loudly and began tugging at his chains. As the flames crept higher and the smoke entered his eyes and mouth, Hose put the stumps of his hands to the tree back of him and with a terrific plunge forward of his body severed the upper portion of the chain which bound him to the tree. His body, held to the tree only as far as his thighs, lunged forward, thus escaping the flames which roared and crackled about his feet. One of the men nearest the burning negro quickly ran up and pushing him back said:

"Get back into the fire, there," and quickly coupled the disjointed links of the chain.

The road for a distance of half a mile on each side of the burning negro was black with conveyances and was simply impassable. The crowd surrounded the stake on all sides, but none of these nearer than 100 feet of the centre were able to see what was going on. Yell after yell went up and the progress of the flames was communicated to those in the rear by shouts from the eye witnesses.

Horrible Souvenirs.

The torch was applied about half past 2 and at 3 o'clock the body of Sam Hose was limp and lifeless, his head hanging to one side. The body was not cut down. It was cut to pieces. The crowd fought for places about the smouldering tree and with knives secured such pieces of his carcass as did not fall to pieces. The chain was severed by hammers, the tree was chopped down, and, with such pieces of firewood as had not been burned, was carried away as souvenirs.

The Constitution's Summary.

ATLANTA, April 23.—The Constitution will say to-morrow:  "The terrible retribution which Sam Hose was forced to pay for his crime will arouse a flood of discussion, carried on by those who know the facts on the one side and by those who do not care for facts on the other.

"But, while the form of the criminal' [sic] punishment cannot be upheld, let those who are disposed to criticise it look into the facts—and by these facts temper the judgment they may render.

"An unassuming, industrious and hard-working farmer, after his day toil, sat at his evening meal; around him sat wife and children, happy in the presence of the man who was fulfilling to them every duty imposed by nature. At peace with the world, serving God and loyal to humanity, they looked forward to the coming day.

"Noiselessly, the murderer, with up lifted axe, advanced in the rear and sank it to the hilt in the brain of the unsuspecting victim.

"Tearing the child from the mother's breast he flung it into the pool of blood oozing from its father's wounds.

"Then began that the culmination of which has dethroned the reason of the people of western Georgia during the past week. As critics will howl about the lynching, we will be pardoned for stating the plain facts.

"The wife was seized and choked, thrown upon the floor, where her clothing lay in the blood of her husband, and ravished.

"Remember the facts! Remember the dark night in the country home! Remember the slain husband, and above all, remember that shocking degradation which was inflicted by the black beast, his victim swimming in her husband's warm blood as the brute held her to the floor!

"Keep the facts in mind! When the picture is painted of the ravisher in flames, go back and view that darker picture of Mrs. Cranford outraged in the blood of her murdered husband!"

Special Train from Atlanta,

ATLANTA, April 23.—One special and two regular trains carried nearly 4,000 people to Newnan to witness  the burning of Sam Hose, or to visit the scene of the horrible affair. The excursionists returning to night were loaded down with ghastly reminders of the affair in the shape of bones, pieces of flesh and parts of the wood which was placed at the negro's feet.

One of the trains as it passed through Fort McPherson, four miles out of Atlanta, wasstoned—presumably by negroes. A number of windows were broken, and two passengers were painfully injured.

Prepared for Trouble.

Governor Candler stated during the evening that he had been advised that a mob of citizens of Fayetteville and Woolsy were coming to Atlanta to take George W. Kerlin from jail here and lynch. Kerlin murdered Miss Pearl Knott near Woolsy several days ago and threw her body in the river. The Governor immediately ordered eight companies of the Fifth infantry (State militia) to be in readiness to march to the jail under orders. It is believed, however, that the troops are held in readiness to be sent to Palmetto in case of an uprising of negroes.

What Gov. Candler Says.

ATLANTA, April 23.—Gov. Candler to-night gave the Associated Press the following statement on the burning of Sam Hose near Newnan, Ga:  "The whole thing is deplorable and Hose's crime, the horrid details of which have not been published, and are too horrible for publication, is the most diabolical in the annals of crime. The negroes of that community lost the best opportunity they will ever have to elevate themselves in the estimation of their white neighbors. The diabolical nature of the double crime was well known to every one of them; the perpetrator was well known, and they owed it to their race to exhaust every means to bring Hose to justice,[sic] This course would have done more to elevate them in the estimation of good people and to protect their race against the mob than all the rewards and proclamations of all the governors f9or the next 50 years. But they lost the opportunity, and it is a deplorable fact that while scores of intelligent negroes, leaders of their race, have talked to me about the Palmetto lynching, not one of them has ever, in the remotest way, alluded to either the burning of Palmetto, which provoked the lynching, nor the diabolical crime of Hose. I do not believe these men sympathized with Hose or the Palmetto incendiaries, but they blinded by race prejudice, and can see but one side of the question. This is unfortunate. They must learn to look at both sides. I want to protect them in every legal right and against mob violence, and I stand ready to employ every resource of the State in doing so, but they must realize in order to merit and receive the protection of the community, they must show a willingness to at least aid in protecting the community against the lawless element of their own race. The good and law-abiding negroes must separate themselves from the lawless and criminal element. They must denounce crime and aid in bringing criminals to justice, whether they be black or white. In this way they can do no more to protect themselves than all the courts and juries in the State can do. To secure protection against lawless whites, they must show a disposition to protect the white people against lawless blacks."


My next post will also be about the Sam Hose lynching. There was a lot of discussion and editorials about the lynching afterward; that I think it would be too long to cover them in this post.

Information on the lynching of Lige Strickland can be found here

Thank you for joining us, and as always, we hope we leave you with something to ponder. 















Friday, September 8, 2017

November 10, 1918: William Bird

To put today's lynching into some historical context, Mr. Bird was lynched 5-8 hours before Germany signed the Armistice ending World War I. We were that close to the end of a major war and people were still lynching black men for little things like disturbing the peace. Please keep this in mind if you wonder why there is so much anger over Confederate monuments or events like the one in Charlottesville. The papers didn't provide much information about the lynching we're covering today. However, this lynching is connected with a lynching we covered on November 12, 2014. George Whitesede was lynched for the murder of a policeman. Our first article covers both lynchings and is from The Concord Times (Concord, North Carolina) dated November 12, 1918:

LYNCHING IN ALABAMA
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Self Confessed Slayer of Policeman Taken from Jail and Lynched.

Sheffield, Ala., Nov. 12.—Geo Whiteside, a negro self confessed slayer of John Graham, a Policeman of Sheffield was taken from the Colbert County jail by a mob early today and lynched.

Shortly afterward the mob left for Russellville, 20 miles south of here, some of their leaders declaring they would lynch Henry Willingham, and Charles Hamilton, two other negroes arrested in connection with the killing. They were taken to Russellville for safekeeping after William Bird, another negro implicated in the affair, had been lynched Sunday night.

It is unknown whether Mr. Bird actually did have something to do with the killing of policeman Graham. No other paper hints that he was involved. They simply mention that he was lynched for "creating a disturbance." Our next and final article is from The Courier-Journal (Louisville, Kentucky) dated November 11, 1918:

NEGRO TAKEN FROM JAIL BY ALABAMA MOB AND HANGED
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Sheffield, Ala., Nov. 10 (by A. P.)—William Bird, a negro, was taken from the jail here to-night by a mob of about 100 men and hanged. Bird was captured and placed in jail this afternoon after a running fight with officers following a disturbance he was said to have created in the lower section of Sheffield. The negro was surrendered to the mob without violence.

Thank you for joining us, and as always, we hope we leave you with something to ponder.

Friday, August 18, 2017

August 1, 1917: Frank Little

Our lynching today stems from labor issues going on in Montana. Our first paper is The Wichita Beacon (Wichita, Kansas) dated August 1, 1917:

HANG AN I.W.W. TO A TRESTLE
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SHORT SHIFT FOR FRANK LITTLE, TRAITOR
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CALLED SOLDIERS SCABS
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BUTTE MOB TAKES EXECUTIVE FROM BOARDING HOUSE
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He Had Been Prominent in Labor Troubles in Arizona— Incendiary Speech Cause of Lynching.
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Butte, Mont., Aug. 1—Frank Little, member of the executive board of the Industrial Workers of the World, and prominent in labor troubles in Arizona, was taken from a lodging house early today by masked men and hanged to a railroad trestle on the outskirts of a city.

Body is Identified.

The body was cut down at 8 a. m. by the chief of police, Jerry Murphy, who identified it. Little, in a recent speech here, referred to United States troops as "Uncle Sam's scabs in uniform.

Had Talked Much.

Since his arrival in Butte recently from Globe, Ariz., Little had made a number of speeches to strikers in all of which he had attacked the government and urged the men to shut down the mines of the Butte district. He was bitter in his denunciation of the government. His record was under investigation by the Federal authorities whose attention had been called to his activities. On the other hand, the report was current that Little was in the employ of a prominent detective agency and one theory was that he was the victim of the radical element of whom he appeared to be a member.

Wrote to a Governor.

Little took a very prominent part in recent labor troubles in Arizona. He addressed a wire to Governor Campbell of Arizona, protesting against the deportation of I. W. W. members from Bisbee. This letter was written from Salt Lake. Governor Campbell replied, telling Little he resented his interference and his threats. Little was understood to have the confidence of William D. Haywood, secretary of the I. W. W. national organization, and was regarded as one Haywood's confidential agents.

Hanged Him Naked.

Little was a cripple but very active and a forceful speaker. On Little's body was a card bearing the words "First and Last Warning, Others Take Notice. Vigilantes." Little, when taken out of the building in which he roomed, was not given time to dress.

By the Old Sign.

The card found on Little's body when he was cut down was pinned to the underclothing on his right thigh. It bore in red crayon letters the inscription:

"Others Take Notice. First and Last Warning. 3-7-77. L. D. C. S. S. W. T."

A circle was about the letter "L." The letters were inscribed with a lead pencil.

The figures "3-7-77" are the old sign of the vigilantes in Montana. The custom of the vigilantes was to send three warnings to a marked man, the last being written in red.

Only Six in Party.

Six masked men in an automobile drove up to the front of Little's hotel at five minutes after three. One stood upon the sidewalk in front of the rooming house. The others entered the house. Everything worked by seeming pre-arrangement.

Without speaking, the men quickly broke into room No. 30 on the ground floor. Light from an electric torch showed them the room was unoccupied.

Mrs. Nora Byrne, landlady of the hotel awoke when the door to room No. 30 was broken in. She occupied an adjoining room at the front of the building.

"Some mistake here," she heard a voice say. Then she heard the men move to the door of her room which they pushed slightly open. Mrs. Byrne sprang to the door and held it. "Wait until I get my clothes on," she said. Then she asked who they were and what they wanted. "We are officers and we want Frank Little," one of the men told her.

Landlady Directs Them.

"Mrs. Byrne got into a bathrobe, again went to the door and opened it. The leader of the masked men poked a revolver into the opening. "Where is Frank Little?" he asked.

"He is in room No. 32," answered Mrs. Byrne. The men ran down the hall and tried the door to that room. Then one of their number gave it a kick that broke the lock and they entered.

Mrs. Byrne said she heard them coming from the room.

She Saw Him Last.

"I saw them half lead and half carry Little across the sidewalk and push him into the waiting motor car."

Little began to make speeches on the day of his arrival in Butte three weeks ago. In all of them he attacked the government. On July 19, before a mass meeting of miners, Little referred to the United States soldiers as "Uncle Sam's scabs in uniform." In the same speech he said:

"If the mines are taken under federal control we will make it so damned hot for the government that it will not be able to send any troops to France."

Referring in another address to his interview recently with Governor Campbell of Arizona, Little said that he used these words: "Governor, I don't give a d—— what your country is fighting for; I am fighting for the solidarity of labor."

His Latest Tirade.

Last Friday night, before the Metal Mine Workers' Union, Little said:

"A city ordinance is simply a piece of paper which can be torn up. The same can be said of the Constitution of the United States."

Following the identification of Little's body, local members of the I. W. W. telegraphed appeals for aid. A message was sent to William D. Haywood at Chicago. It was said that a message was received from Haywood saying the resources of the organization would be employed to bring the lynchers of Little to justice.

Early in the day men gathered at Finn Hall, headquarters of the Metal Mine Workers' Union, and threats were made against "gunmen" said to be employed here.

This afternoon steps probably will be taken by the local I. W. W. to protect other leaders here. At Union Hall threats were made by individuals against local newspapers.
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Haywood Hears It.

Chicago, Aug. 1.—Frank Little had been identified with the Industrial Workers of the World since 1906. His home was Fresno, Cal. He was 38 years old and single.

Word of his death was received with emotion by W. D. Haywood, secretary of the national organization of the I. W. W.
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His Threat to Governor.

Salt Lake, Utah, Aug. 1.—Little, the I. W. W. organizer lynched today at Butte, telegraphed Governor Campell of Arizona, from here July 17 as follows regarding the deportation from that sate of members of the I. W. W.:

"Understand that the mine owners' mob will take same action at Globe and Miami, as was taken at Bisbee. The membership of the I. W. W. is getting tired of the lawlessness of the capitalistic class and will no longer stand for such action. If you, as governor, can not uphold the law, we will take same into our own hands. Will you act or must we?"


Our next article is from Argus-Leader (Sioux Falls, South Dakota dated on August 2, 1917:


LABOR TROUBLE WILL BE CURBED WITH FIRM HAND
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Government Plans Drastic Action to Meet Disturbances Throughout the West
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BACKED BY GERMAN AGENTS
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Nothing Will Be Left Undone to Prevent Tie Up of Nation's War Industries
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Chicago, Aug. 2.—William D. Haywood, secretary of the national organization of the Industrial Workers of the World, received a telegram today saying that the funeral of Frank Little, member of the executive committee of the I. W. W., who was hanged by a mob in Butte, Mont., would be either in Fresno, Cal., his old home, or in Chicago. The funeral the message said, would be marked by a demonstration of protest by the Industrial Workers of the World.
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Washington, Aug. 2.—Drastic action by the government to meet the labor disturbances in the west and southwest which officials are sure have been stirred up by German propaganda will be taken if the situation shows any growth.

Intimations of an attempt to call out the United Mine Workers should the government intervene on behalf of the Industrial Workers of the World in labor disputes in certain sections of the west have resulted in the department of justice undertaking a broad general inquiry.

The inquiry has not yet reached the stage where definite action has been formulated by officials assert that nothing possible will be left undone to prevent the tie up of industries deemed vital in the conduct of the war.

Study Butte Lynching.
Butte, Mont., Aug. 2.—Attorney General Ford and County Attorney Jackson conferred today with a view to determining upon a course of action in respect to the lynching of Frank H. Little, chairman of the general executive board of the I. W. W. national organization, who was hanged by masked men on the outskirts of Butte early yesterday morning.The police and sheriff say they are without clews[sic] thus far as to the identity of the lynchers. Despite the fact that William Sullivan, counsel for the Metal Mine Workers' Union, declares he knows the identity of five of the men, the authorities do not credit his declaration.

Guardsmen on Hand.
Two companies of the national guardsmen were in Butte this morning, one having arrived last night from Bozeman. The other has been here for some time.

Among Little's personal effects was found an envelope containing ashes. Upon the envelope was the title "Ashes of Joe Hill." It is supposed that the ashes were those from the cremated body of Frank Hillstrom an I. W. W., executed at the Utah state prison for murder.

Identify the Lynchers.
In a bulletin issued by the Metal Mine Workers' union today the statement is made that the name of five of the lynching party are known.

"Two of these men and one is connected with law enforcement in the city."

The bulletin adds:

"Threats have already been made that if we succeed in convicting those who committed this crime we will never live to tell it. We want to inform them that three copies of every bit of information we have are deposited in three different places to be used in case they succeed in getting any of us. We know already that alibis were prepared in advance for every one of the murderers yet we have evidence that will break every alibi completely and when we finish some very prominent murderers will be headed for the gallows or Deer Lodge penitentiary."

William G. Sullivan, lawyer, retained by the union, would not disclose their names today. Sheriff O'Rourke interviewed Sullivan but said he obtained no information from him.

Not Planning Strike.
Indianapolis, Ind., Aug. 2.—The idea of intimations of attempts to call out the United Mine Workers of America should the government not intervene in behalf of Industrial Workers of the World in labor disputes in certain sections of the west, was ridiculed and branded as misleading and incorrect today by William Green, secretary-treasurer of the United Mine Workers.

Mr. Green last night made public telegrams he sent to President Wilson and others protesting against the deportation of members of the United Mine Workers. At the same time he specifically stated his protest was not because of any action taken regarding the Industrial Workers but because of an alleged deportation of United Mine Workers from a tent colony at Gallup, N. M.

"Statements that there were intimations of an attempt to call out the United Mine Workers should the government not intervene in behalf of the I. W. W. are incorrect and misleading," he said.

Our next article is from Pittston Gazette (Pittston, Pennsylvania) August 6, 1917:

BUTTE FACES STRIKES AS RESULT LYNCHING

Butte, Mont., Aug. 6.—Butte today was facing several additional strikes which threatened to tie up all industries of the city, as a direct result of the lynching of Frank Little, the 1.[sic] W. W. leader last week.

All mine engineers are the latest craftsmen to declare their intention of striking, according to leaders of the Metal Workers' union. This would completely shut down the mining industries.

No attempt was being made by the street car company to break the strike of carmen and no cars had moved since the strike was called Saturday morning.

Union leaders declared that 12,000 miners miners are still out as a result of the original miners' strike and that less than three per cent. of the miners have deserted the union. The mining officials, on the other hand, claimed that many union men have deserted the union and operating conditions are becoming normal.

Our final article is from the San Francisco Chronicle (San Francisco, California) dated August 27, 1917:

STRIKE SPREADS IN BUTTE MINES
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I W. W. Man Held in Connection With Little Lynching

BUTTE (Mont.), August 26.—Butte's streets today were crowded with thousands of miners, idle because of the shutdown of all the copper mines of the district, made necessary by the closing Friday of the Washoe smelting plant of the Anaconda Copper Mining Company at Anaconda, when of 3000 men employed on the day shift only 110 reported for work. It is expected that the company's plant in Great Falls will be closed down within a day or two, as soon as the ore in transit has been sent through the smelter.

C. A. McCarthy, alias Albright, is held in the City Jail in connection with the lynching of Frank H. Little, national exectuvie board member of the Industrial Workers of the World. McCarthy, local executive member of the I. W. W., was arrested several days ago. He denies any knowledge of the Little affair.

Indications are that the independent mines of the district, which did not shut down Friday, will be compelled to cease operations in the near future. These include the zinc- producing properties, among them the Butte and Superior, Elm Orlu and others. Miners gradually are failing to report for work at the Independent properties.

There is a belief here that the machinsts' union will declare a strike soon. The machinists have formulated new demands, which they declare they will insist upon.

Several weeks ago they accepted the agreement reached between the operating companies and State Metal Trades Council.

Thank you for joining us, and as always, we hope we leave you with something to ponder.